The advent of new technologies and growing recognition of the enormous degree of microbial diversity has revolutionized our understanding of microbiology as a discipline. Microbiology is moving into a new era that focuses less on specific organisms and more on the processes and mechanisms that link them. Nature Reviews Microbiology embraces this new era by encompassing the discipline in its broadest sense. We take an integrated approach to microbiology, bridging fundamental research and its clinical, industrial and environmental applications to create a single information resource for all who share an interest in microbial life. 


Nature Reviews Microbiology publishes the highest-quality reviews and perspectives highlighting important developments in our understanding of bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi and protozoa, their interaction with their environments, how these organisms are harnessed in human endeavour and their impact on society. Also featured are timely summaries of significant research papers, as well as monthly updates on the latest developments in microbial genomics, post-genomic biology and infectious diseases. In line with our ongoing ambition to overcome the traditional barriers between bacteriology, virology, mycology and archaeal and protozoan biology, articles are tailored to appeal to microbiologists of every persuasion and at every level. The scope of the journal encompasses, but will not be limited to, the following fields pertaining to bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi and protozoa:
·         Biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology
·         Genetics and genomics
·         Ecology, evolution and biodiversity
·         Cellular microbiology
·         Environmental microbiology
·         Pathogenesis and host defence
·         Clinical and diagnostic microbiology
·         Infectious diseases
·         Antimicrobial therapies and vaccines
·         Epidemiology and public health microbiology
·         Applied and industrial microbiology
·         Microbiology education
·         Microbiology and society
If a career involving microbes is in your future, you'll want to learn about the educational requirements and possibly find a mentor.You may not encounter any microbiologists in your everyday activities or even know of anyone who works as a microbiologist. But the efforts of thousands of these scientists to better understand our planet’s microscopic inhabitants affect you in many ways every day.
Microbiologists’ research helps keep your food from making you sick and your drinking water clean and safe.

They track down the culprits behind mysterious new illnesses and harness microbes’ abilities to make medicines, industrial enzymes, food ingredients, and many other useful products. 



Microbiologists work behind the scenes in hospital labs to pinpoint the germ making you sick so your doctor can prescribe the right treatment, and they figure out the basic workings of infectious microbial cells so that drug makers can devise potent new medicines. 



They solve environmental problems by using microbes in bioremediation, and they explore oceans, caves, deserts, and even Antarctica's ice to learn how microbes affect the workings of our planet.

You might expect to find microbiologists working at research universities or in the sprawling complexes of pharmaceutical companies. But microbiologists also work in the food industry, water treatment, agriculture, pollution control, biotechnology, energy development,  museum preservation, and many other disciplines.

Microbiologists also find jobs in government agencies and labs, such as the National Institutes of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Microbiologists can be found in a variety of settings, from the traditional laboratory to the woods.
Because there are so many different species of microbes out there and they do such very different things, no one microbiologist can study every kind of microorganism. Microbiologists and other scientists who study microbes usually focus on a particular microbe or research area. 


Here are a few examples:

·         Bacteriologists focus specifically on bacteria and how they help or hurt us.
·         Virologists specialize in viruses and how they infect cells.
·         Mycologists study fungi in particular.
·         Protozoologists devote their efforts to protozoa.
·         Epidemiologists investigate infectious disease outbreaks to learn what caused them and if we’re facing a deadly new microbe.
·         Immunologists study how the body defends itself against microbial invaders.

Benefits
While some fear microbes due to the association of some microbes with various human illnesses, many microbes are also responsible for numerous beneficial processes such as industrial fermentation (e.g. the production of alcoholvinegar and dairy products), antibioticproduction and as vehicles for cloning in more complex organisms such as plants. Scientists have also exploited their knowledge of microbes to produce biotechnologically important enzymes such as Taq polymerasereporter genes for use in other genetic systems and novel molecular biology techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid system.

(Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer)


Bacteria can be used for the industrial production of amino acids. Corynebacterium glutamicum is one of the most important bacterial species with an annual production of more than two million tons of amino acids, mainly L-glutamate and L-lysine.
A variety of biopolymers, such as polysaccharidespolyesters, and polyamides, are produced by microorganisms. Microorganisms are used for the biotechnological production of biopolymers with tailored properties suitable for high-value medical application such as tissue engineering and drug delivery. Microorganisms are used for the biosynthesis of xanthanalginatecellulosecyanophycin, poly(gamma-glutamic acid), levanhyaluronic acid, organic acids, oligosaccharides and polysaccharide, and polyhydroxyalkanoates.
Microorganisms are beneficial for microbial biodegradation or bioremediation of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and subsurface pollution in soils, sediments and marine environments. The ability of each microorganism to degrade toxic waste depends on the nature of each contaminant. Since sites typically have multiple pollutant types, the most effective approach to microbial biodegradation is to use a mixture of bacterial and fungal species and strains, each specific to the biodegradation of one or more types of contaminants.
Symbiotic microbial communities are known to confer various benefits to their human and animal host's health including aiding digestion, production of beneficial vitamins and amino acids, and suppression of pathogenic microbes. Some benefit may be conferred by consuming fermented foods, probiotics (bacteria potentially beneficial to the digestive system) and/or prebiotics (substances consumed to promote the growth of probiotic microorganisms). The ways the microbiome influences human and animal health, as well as methods to influence the microbiome are active areas of research.

Research has suggested that microorganisms could be useful in the treatment of cancer. Various strains of non-pathogenic clostridia can infiltrate and replicate within solid tumors. Clostridial vectors can be safely administered and their potential to deliver therapeutic proteins has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models. 

















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